Building your service with tests

When working on a Service Fabric application, one of the first things that you will probably notice is that there is no easy way to get started with writing tests around your service.

To build a stateful service within Service Fabric we inherit from a class called StatefulService and override a protected RunAsync method:


public sealed class MyStatefulService : StatefulService
{
    public MyStatefulService(StatefulServiceContext context, IReliableStateManagerReplica reliableStateManagerReplica)
        : base(context, reliableStateManagerReplica)
    { }

    protected override async Task RunAsync(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
    {
        while (true)
        {
            cancellationToken.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();

            // Do Work.
        }
    }
}

Calling RunAsync

Due to the protection level of the method there is no way for us to call it within our tests. new MyStatefulService(...).RunAsync(...); will give us the following error

Cannot access method ‘RunAsync’ here due to its protection level.

So let’s find out what calls in to our RunAsync method, StatefulServiceBase is the base class of StatefulService and has been interface of IStatefulUserServiceReplica which also has a RunAsync method but it is explicitly implemented thus hiding the details of IStatefulUserServiceReplica. So instead we can cast our service to the interface and then call the method.


var service = (IStatefulUserServiceReplica)new MyStatefulService(...);
service.RunAsync(...);

The above also fails on referencing IStatefulUserServiceReplica with the following error

‘IStatefulUserServiceReplica’ is inaccessible due to its protection level MyStatefulService

Everything else down the chain that calls IStatefulUserServiceReplica is all internal too, so we’ve got no luck here.

So for calling our RunAsync method we will have to hand roll some reflection code that invokes the protected method 🤮.

var runAsyncMethodInfo = typeof(StatefulServiceBase)
                              .GetMethod("RunAsync" BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.NonPublic);

var service = new MyStatefulService(...);
await (Task) runAsyncMethodInfo.Invoke(Service, new object[] { new CancellationTokenSource().Token });

RunAsync continuous loop

The next problem we face is that the RunAsync method never returns to its caller. Calling the method directly within our tests will never end execution. We do however have a cancellation token that we can trigger to force an exception to be thrown, this will allow us to break out of the infinite while loop.

The standard practice within a stateful service is to start a transaction and then commit the transaction after the work is completed.


while (true)
{
    cancellationToken.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();

    using (var tx = this.StateManager.CreateTransaction())
    {
        // Do Work.

        await tx.CommitAsync();
    }
}

So if we could mock out a transaction object to trigger the cancellation token on disposal then this would give us one iteration of the while loop. The below code uses moq to create a mock of a ITransaction object that will trigger Cancel on a CancellationTokenSource object when the Dispose method is called. We also need to wrap the running of the service in a try/catch block as we’ll be expecting a OperationCanceledException to be thrown.

var cancellationTokenSource = new CancellationTokenSource();
var transaction = new Mock<ITransaction>();
transaction.Setup(x => x.CommitAsync())
    .Returns(Task.FromResult(0));
transaction.Setup(x => x.Dispose())
    .Callback(() => cancellationTokenSource.Cancel());

var reliableStateManagerReplica = new Mock<IReliableStateManagerReplica>();
reliableStateManagerReplica.Setup(x => x.CreateTransaction())
    .Returns(transaction.Object);

var service = new MyStatefulService(null, reliableStateManagerReplica.Object,null);

try
{
    await Run(service, cancellationTokenSource.Token);
}
catch (OperationCanceledException)
{  }

Base test fixture

Now we have got all of the building blocks, we can start to build a base test fixture. Below is an example of a test fixture that uses a template pattern to force the user to override a CreateService for create a StatefulService. It also has a RunServiceTransactionOnce method that will allow derived classes to run the service for one transaction.

public abstract class StatefulServiceFixture<TStatefulService>
    where TStatefulService : StatefulService
{
    private static readonly MethodInfo RunAsyncMethodInfo = typeof(StatefulServiceBase)
                              .GetMethod("RunAsync", BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.NonPublic);

    protected StatefulServiceContext StatefulServiceContext { get; }

    protected Mock<IReliableStateManagerReplica> ReliableStateManagerReplica { get; }

    protected Mock<ITransaction> Transaction { get; }

    protected TStatefulService Service { get; }

    protected StatefulServiceFixture()
    {
        StatefulServiceContext = new StatefulServiceContext(
            new NodeContext(string.Empty, new NodeId(0, 0), 0, string.Empty, string.Empty),
            Mock.Of<ICodePackageActivationContext>(),
            string.Empty,
            new Uri("fabric:/Mock"),
            new byte[0],
            Guid.NewGuid(),
            0);

        Transaction = new Mock<ITransaction>();
        Transaction.Setup(x => x.CommitAsync())
            .Returns(Task.FromResult(0));
        ReliableStateManagerReplica = new Mock<IReliableStateManagerReplica>();
        ReliableStateManagerReplica.Setup(x => x.CreateTransaction())
            .Returns(Transaction.Object);

        Service = CreateService(StatefulServiceContext, ReliableStateManagerReplica, Transaction);
    }

    protected abstract TStatefulService CreateService(StatefulServiceContext statefulServiceContext,
        Mock<IReliableStateManagerReplica> reliableStateManagerReplica, Mock<ITransaction> transaction);

    protected async Task RunServiceTransactionOnce()
    {
        var cancellationTokenSource = new CancellationTokenSource();
        Transaction.Setup(x => x.Dispose())
            .Callback(() => cancellationTokenSource.Cancel());

        try
        {
            await (Task) RunAsyncMethodInfo.Invoke(Service, new object[] { cancellationTokenSource.Token });
        }
        catch (OperationCanceledException)
        {
            // We expect the task to be cancelled after one transaction.
            return;
        }

        throw new Exception("RunAsync method should have been cancelled");
    }
}

Real life example

We can now map this to a real life example. We have requirements to create a microservice that listens to a orders queue and dequeue an item off each iterations within our loops, every Order that is received off the queue is checked to see if it requires a receipt to be generated and then dispatches the Order to the ReceiptGenerator. The xUnit tests for this are below:

public class OrderServiceTests : StatefulServiceFixture<OrderService>
{
    private Mock<IReceiptGenerator> _orderTaker;

    protected override OrderService CreateService(StatefulServiceContext statefulServiceContext,
        Mock<IReliableStateManagerReplica> reliableStateManagerReplica,
        Mock<ITransaction> transaction)
    {
        _orderTaker = new Mock<IReceiptGenerator>();

        return new OrderService(statefulServiceContext, reliableStateManagerReplica.Object, _orderTaker.Object);
    }

    [Fact]
    public async void ShouldGenerateReceipt_WhenOrderRequiresReceipt()
    {
        var order = new Order() {RequiresReceipt = true};

        var orderQueue = new Mock<IReliableQueue<Order>>(MockBehavior.Strict);
        orderQueue.Setup(x => x.TryDequeueAsync(Transaction.Object))
            .ReturnsAsync(new ConditionalValue<Order>(true, order));

        ReliableStateManagerReplica.Setup(x => x.GetOrAddAsync<IReliableQueue<Order>>("orders"))
            .ReturnsAsync(orderQueue.Object);

        await RunServiceTransactionOnce();

        _orderTaker.Verify(x => x.Generate(order), Times.Once);
    }

    [Fact]
    public async void ShouldNotGenerateReceipt_WhenOrderDoesNotRequiresReceipt()
    {
        var order = new Order() { RequiresReceipt = false };

        var orderQueue = new Mock<IReliableQueue<Order>>(MockBehavior.Strict);
        orderQueue.Setup(x => x.TryDequeueAsync(Transaction.Object))
            .ReturnsAsync(new ConditionalValue<Order>(true, order));

        ReliableStateManagerReplica.Setup(x => x.GetOrAddAsync<IReliableQueue<Order>>("orders"))
            .ReturnsAsync(orderQueue.Object);

        await RunServiceTransactionOnce();

        _orderTaker.Verify(x => x.Generate(order), Times.Never);
    }
}

For completeness the OrderService implemention is below to cross reference with the tests.

public sealed class OrderService : StatefulService
{
    private readonly IReceiptGenerator _receiptGenerator;

    public OrderService(StatefulServiceContext context, IReliableStateManagerReplica reliableStateManagerReplica, IReceiptGenerator receiptGenerator)
        : base(context, reliableStateManagerReplica)
    {
        this._receiptGenerator = receiptGenerator;
    }

    protected override async Task RunAsync(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
    {
        var orderQueue = await this.StateManager.GetOrAddAsync<IReliableQueue<Order>>("orders");

        while (true)
        {
            cancellationToken.ThrowIfCancellationRequested();

            using (var tx = this.StateManager.CreateTransaction())
            {
                var result = await orderQueue.TryDequeueAsync(tx);

                if (result.HasValue && result.Value.RequiresReceipt)
                {
                    await _receiptGenerator.Generate(result.Value);
                }

                await tx.CommitAsync();
            }
        }
    }
}


Kevin Smith

Developer, technology enthusiast and @dotnetsheff organiser.